"The International Telecommunication Union, previously the International Telegraph Union, is the specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for information and communication technologies. ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and establishes worldwide standards.
ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology.
The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.
ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group and its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 Sector Members and Associates". - Wikipedia
ITU work is treaty based (and in terms of the USA must be ratified by the US Senate).
International Telecommunications Regulations enacted 1988 (ITRs) .
Art. 9: Interconnection of information services.
See WTO agreement on Internet Interconnection
World Conference International Telecommunications (WCIT) December 2012 Dubai
Is the ITU looking to expand its authority over the Internet (or ICTs) in the areas of
European Network Telecommunications Organization (ETNO) Proposal ITRs (Sending Party Pays for Internet Interconnection)
(version posted to Wikileaks) of the European Telecommunications Network Operators' Association
- Art. 2
For the purpose of these Regulations, the following definitions shall apply. These terms and definitions do not, however, necessarily apply for other purposes.
2.11 IP interconnection: IP interconnection refers to technical and business solutions and rules to ensure the delivery of IP traffic through different networks.
2.12 End to end quality of service delivery and best effort delivery:
- End to End quality of service delivery refers to the delivery of PDU (Packet Data Unit) with predefined end-
to-end performance objectives.
- Best-effort delivery refers delivery to of a PDU without predefined performance targets.
3.1. Members States shall ensure that Operating Agencies cooperate in the establishment, operation and maintenance of the international network to provide satisfactory quality of service. Member States shall facilitate the development of international IP interconnections providing both best effort delivery and end to end quality of service delivery.
3.2 Operating Agencies shall endeavour to provide sufficient telecommunications facilities to meet requirements of and demand for international telecommunication services. For this purpose, and to ensure an adequate return on investment in high bandwidth infrastructures, operating agencies shall negotiate commercial agreements to achieve a sustainable system of fair compensation for telecommunications services and, where appropriate, respecting the principle of sending party network pays.
International Telecommunication Services
4.4 Operating Agencies shall cooperate in the development of international IP interconnections providing both, best effort delivery and end to end quality of service delivery. Best effort delivery should continue to form the basis of international IP traffic exchange. Nothing shall preclude commercial agreements with differentiated quality of service delivery to develop.
- ETNO response to the Commission Public Consultation on specific aspects of transparency, traffic management and switching in an open Internet, October 16, 2012 ("ETNO does not call for regulation of IP-Interconnection, be it at global, EU or national level. IP-Interconnection should be covered by commercial agreements, including on the provision of enhanced quality of service, allowing the development of new sustainable models of traffic and payment flows in the internet value chain, and supporting sustained investment in network infrastructure.")
- ETNO paper on Contribution to WCIT
ITRs Proposal to Address New Internet Ecosystem ("The aim of the ETNO proposal is to contribute to the achievement of a more sustainable model for the Internet. ETNO is not asking for increased regulatory intervention but aims to establish a reference for commercial negotiations. The current interconnection model has some shortcomings that need to be addressed. Today there is a huge disproportion amongst revenues and a clear shift of value towards players (Over the Top players - OTT) who are not contributing to network investment. Traffic and revenue flows need to be realigned in order to assure the economic viability of infrastructure investment and the sustainability of the whole ecosystem. The revision of the ITRs offers a unique opportunity to propose high-level principles for IP interconnection.")
- FCC CHAIRMAN TO INTERNATIONAL LEADERS: UPCOMING U.N. CONFERENCE A CROSSROADS, DEVELOPED AND EMERGING ECONOMIES MUST PRESERVE FREE & OPEN INTERNET. Says open markets, competition vital for continued broadband growth worldwide. News Release. News Media Contact: Neil Grace at 0506, email: Neil.Grace OCHJG TXT
- PREPARED REMARKS OF FCC CHAIRMAN JULIUS GENACHOWSKI, "THE INTERNET AT A GLOBAL CROSSROADS: PRESERVING INTERNET FREEDOM AND OPENNESS," FUTURECOM, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL. OCHJG TXT
- STATEMENT OF FCC CHAIRMAN JULIUS GENACHOWSKI ON THE FORMATION OF THE U.S. DELEGATION TO THE WORLD CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS (WCIT). STMT. News Media Contact: Neil Grace at 0506, Neil.Grace OCHJG http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/ edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC- 316566A1.doc
http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/ edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC- 316566A1.pdf
http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/ edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC- 316566A1.txt
- STATEMENT FROM FCC CHAIRMAN JULIUS GENACHOWSKI ON THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE INTERNET GOVERNANCE RESOLUTION. STMT. News Media Contact: Neil Grace at 0506, Neil.Grace OCHJG http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/ edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC- 316384A1.doc
http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/ edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC- 316384A1.pdf
http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/ edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC- 316384A1.txt
COMMISSIONER ROBERT M. MCDOWELL FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE
COMMUNICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY
INTERNATIONAL PROPOSALS TO REGULATE THE INTERNET
MAY 31, 2012
- Robert M. McDowell, The UN Threat to the Internet, WSJ Feb. 21, 2012 ("As Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said last June, his goal and that of his allies is to establish "international control over the Internet" through the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a treaty-based organization under U.N. auspices.")
- REMARKS OF
THE HONORABLE ROBERT M. MCDOWELL COMMISSIONER
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
ASSOCIAZIONE EGO AND PUNTOIT
AULA DEI GRUPPI PARLAMENTARI
JUNE 28, 2012
- Comm'r McDowell's Speech on Possible ITU Regulation of Internet June 28 2012
- McDowell: 2012-The Year of UN Regulation of the Internet?
December 08 2011
- Keynote Speech by Lawrence E. Strickling Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information U.S. Chamber of Commerce Telecommunications and E-Commerce Committee
- What Role Should the UN Have in Governing the Internet? A Briefing on the UN's Internet Governance Initiative Date: Tuesday, June 5, 2012| Download Audio MP3 Internet Caucus
- H.Con.Res.127 - Expressing the sense of Congress regarding actions to preserve and advance the multistakeholder governance model under which the Internet has thrived.112th Congress (2011-2012) "Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring),
That it is the sense of Congress that the Assistant Secretary of
Commerce for Communications and Information, in consultation with the
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State and United States Coordinator for
International Communications and Information Policy, should continue
working to implement the position of the United States on Internet
governance that clearly articulates the consistent and unequivocal
policy of the United States to promote a global Internet free from
government control and preserve and advance the successful
multistakeholder model that governs the Internet today."
- Bono Mack Internet Freedom Legislation Approved Unanimously By Full House August 2, 2012
- A Giant Step Backward or the Way Forward An Analysis of some Proposals before WCIT Rohan Samarajiva| Chair and CEO, LIRNEasia| September 2012 ("ETNO wants the ITU to designate Internet content providers as “call originators” and subject them to a “sending party network pays” rule that would allow telecommunications operators to charge them rates they believe are commensurate with the bandwidth their content consumes.")
- DeNardis, Dr. Laura, Governance at the Internet's Core: The Geopolitics of Interconnection and Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) in Emerging Markets (March 27, 2012). 2012 TRPC. ("Recently, the European Telecommunications Network Operators’ Association (ETNO) submitted a proposal in advance of the 2012 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT) that suggested three global policy alterations pertinent to Internet interconnection: 1. Expansion of International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs) to include Internet connectivity; 2. Involvement of nation states in ‘facilitating’ interconnection; and 3. The prospect of compensation between providers based on ‘sending party network pays.’ ")
- ETNO Proposal Theatens to Impair Access to the Open, Global Internet, CDT June 21, 2012 ("If a mandate is created that requires sending networks – those providing content and applications that users want to access – to pay to interconnect with incumbent telecommunications operators in order to reach businesses and individual users, as the ETNO proposal suggests, those businesses and users in less developed countries in particular may not have access to the full range of information or services online or will find that access more expensive.")
- News and Blogs
- Leslie Harris, My Dinner with ETNO, CDT Sept 24, 2012 ("if ETNO's proposal becomes treaty law, it would put countries seeking to preserve a neutral Internet in violation of their treaty obligations and likely increase the cost of Internet access for users, especially in less developed countries.")
- Cynthia Wong, Radical Proposal Now on Table at the ITU, CDT June 21, 2012
- Internet Interconnections
Proposals For New Interconnection Model Comes Up Short Internet Society
- Larry Downes, EU Telcos Defend UN Internet Takeover Plans, CNET September 23, 2012 ("Instead, ETNO simply reiterates its view that "Perpetuating an 'unpaid peering' approach for IP interconnection that developed when traffic patterns were largely symmetric can hamper the incentive to invest in transport capacity and network quality." The group argues that over-the-top video providers including YouTube, Netflix, and Hulu are extracting more and more revenue from the network but "are not contributing to network investment." ")
- Declan McCullagh and Larry Downes, UN Could Tax US Based Web Sites, Leaked Docs Show, CNET June 7, 2012
- Declan McCullagh, European ISPs defend UN Internet Tax, CNET August 20, 2012
- Declan McCullagh, UN Takeover of the Internet must be stopped, US Warns, CNET May 31, 2012
- Geoff Huston, A Report on the OECD/BEREC Workshop on Interconnection and Regulation, CIRCLEID June 28, 2012 (discussing ETNO position)
- USG Delegation
- Ambassador Terry D. Kramer, Head US Delegation to WCIT
- Eli Dourado, Research Fellow, Mercatus Center GMU Law
- August Submissions
- Review of ITRs should be at a high level
- Recommendations are voluntary
- Ensure focused on telecommunications services
- Not open to redefining telecom service to include the Internet
- Not open to redefining "operating entities" (telecom networks)
- October Submissions
- Liberalized markets successfully drives broadband deployment
- Cybersecurity - a problem - but where is the best solution. Solution must have technical expertise and participatory inclusive process
Seek to block spam. Want ability to mandate traffic routing.
Significant economic problem. Highly competitive market has permitted dramatic reduction in transit costs. Consolidating traffic over few routes increases ability of the government to engage in surveillance.
- Equinet (Equality in Network Builds)
- Information Security
African Region Proposals
- A Giant Step Backward or the Way Forward An Analysis of some Proposals before WCIT Rohan Samarajiva| Chair and CEO, LIRNEasia| September 2012 ("The Region’s proposal aims to impose broad regulations on the economics and content of the Internet, and seeks to redefine once-narrow ITR telecommunications definitions to encompass the much-larger ecosystem of the digital economy, including Internet service providers (ISPs), content providers and Internet standards-making bodies.")
- Russia Submission released by wikileaks
- Russia Calls for Internet Revolution, RT.com May 28, 2012 ("Russia backed by China and India is pushing through a takeover of the internet by a UN supranational agency to make the web truly universal. The aim of the plan is to standardize the behavior of countries concerning information and cyberspace.")
Internet Society Submission
- Affim multi statekeholder model
- ITR not about Internet, they are about PSTN
- Voluntary standards for ITU-T
- ETNO would disincentivize creation of IXPs - people will not want to interconnect capacity to places where will have to pay to send the traffic
WSIS Statement, WSIS 7/8/2005
Whose vision of an information society?, First
tightened in WSIS host country, IFEX 3/4/2005
Group agrees on voluntary digital solidarity fund,
IT World 3/2/2005
liberties an issue' ahead of WSIS, UNDP 2/8/2005
PANEL AIMS TO END INTERNET TUG OF WAR BY JULY,
Report on WSIS' Group of friends of the chair
Meeting, UNDP 1/18/2005
Webcasts Archive, UN 1/15/2004
- Draft UN treaty to ease global electronic commerce
moves forward, UN 3/23/2004
Summit on the Information Society, Europa
compromise for UN summit, BBC 12/9/2003
Society Angry At Being Sidelined At WSIS,
rifts loom over U.N. Net summit, Mercury
to tackle issues like digital divide, Net porn,
Straights Times 12/9/2003
leaders share vision of information society,
Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Switzerland 12/9/2003
Internet Summit Exposes Digital Divisions Between
Rich And ..., Radio Free Europe 12/9/2003
will pay to bridge the digital divide?,
Information Summit faces huge challenges to bridge
digital ., Jamaica Observer 12/9/2003
- Final Drafts of Declaration of Principle and
Action Plan Posted, ITU 12/9/2003
Summit to set out a strategic vision for a global
information society, RAPID 12/9/2003
Nations to look at big-picture of technology,
of Meeting on international Internet connectivity,
Lacking As U.N. Tech Summit Looms, Mercury
pledge to bridge digital divide, Neue
Zürcher Zeitung 12/12/2003
Summit is comprehensive triumph, Register
Agrees On Critical Issues, AllAfrica 12/12/2003
plan, swissinfo 12/12/2003
EU, Brussels - The Digital Divide: Opportunities and
Threats at the Verge of EU Enlargement, Janus
summit pledges net for all, BBC 12/12/2003
for control of the Net erupts at U.N., Reuters
Summit to Focus on Internet, Wash Post 12/5/2003
stymies UN net body, Australian IT 12/5/2003
'miss out' on net commerce, BBC 11/21/2003
finds wide digital divide, CNET 11/21/2003
Digital Access Index: World's First Global ICT
Ranking, ITU 11/21/2003
group mulls a meaty meeting, CNET 10/27/2003
Comments on the March 21st Version of the WSIS Draft
Declaration and Action Plan, State 6/2/03
Draft declaration and action plan now available
for public comment, ITU 3/24/03
n sets out its objectives for the United Nations
World Summit on Information Society, Rapid
Comments on the March 21st Version of the WSIS
Draft Declaration and Action Plan, State
- United Nations Economic and Social Commission for
Western Asia Regional Preparatory Conference for the
World Summit on the Information Society 4-6 February,
- 2003 Switzerland
- ITU World
Summit Information Society 2005 Tunisia
- World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) (US State
summit could spark Net regulation talks, IDG
delegates fail to agree on open-source 'support',
Info World 1/31/03
101 IP Based Networks
102 Management of Internet Domains and
133 Role of administrations of Member States
in the management of internationalized
(multilingual) domain names
Political Leaders Must Address Information Society
Issues - Global Governance Framework for
'Cyberspace' to be issue at World Summit ITU
Internet as a Human Right
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Article 19: "Everyone has the right to freedom of
opinion and expression; this right includes freedom
to hold opinions without interference and to seek,
receive and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers."
- UN Report Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue* May 16, 2011
- "The Special Rapporteur underscores the unique and transformative nature of the Internet not only to enable individuals to exercise their right to freedom of opinion and expression, but also a range of other human rights, and to promote the progress of society as a whole. Chapter III of the report underlines the applicability of international human rights norms and standards on the right to freedom of opinion and expression to the Internet as a communication medium, and sets out the exceptional circumstances under which the dissemination of certain types of information may be restricted. Chapters IV and V address two dimensions of Internet access respectively: (a) access to content; and (b) access to the physical and technical infrastructure required to access the Internet in the first place. More specifically, chapter IV outlines some of the ways in which States are increasingly censoring information online, namely through: arbitrary blocking or filtering of content; criminalization of legitimate expression; imposition of intermediary liability; disconnecting users from Internet access, including on the basis of intellectual property rights law; cyber- attacks; and inadequate protection of the right to privacy and data protection. Chapter V addresses the issue of universal access to the Internet. The Special Rapporteur intends to explore this topic further in his future report to the General Assembly. Chapter VI contains the Special Rapporteur’s conclusions and recommendations concerning the main subjects of the report. "
- United National Report: Internet Access as a Human Right, LATimes June 3, 2011 (Copy of Report at LA Times)
- Internet Access is a Human Right, United Nations Report Declares, HUFFPO June 8, 2011("The report, which the Atlantic describes as reading "like a hat tip to WikiLeaks and its campaign for transparency," was met with strong praise from groups like the Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT).")
ICT Free Statistics
- USG is represented before the UN/ITU by the State Department (in consultation with FCC International Bureau and Dept. of Commerce, NTIA, International Office)
International Telecommunication Advisory
- "The United States International Telecommunication Advisory Committee (ITAC) advises the Department of State in the preparation of U.S. positions for meetings of international treaty organizations, develops and coordinates proposed contributions to international meetings as U.S. contributions, and advises the Department on other matters to be undertaken by the U.S. at these international meetings. The international meetings addressed by the ITAC are those of the International Telecommunication Union, the Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL) of the Organization of American States, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Members of the ITAC are drawn from the government, network operators, service providers, and manufacturers involved in the telecommunications sector. "
- To join the ITAC Listserv, reported send an email to join ITAC_Listserve_Requests@state.gov and you automatically have access to ITAC.
- ITAC advises the Department of State on U.S.
participation in international telecommunications treaty
organizations such as the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU).
- ITAC has been particularly active on such issues as IP Telephony, International Internet
Settlement, and ENUM.
- ITAC is administered by the International
Communications and Information Policy Office, Economic and
Business Affairs Bureau of the US Department of
- Pursuant to Exec
Order 12046 (1978), both the FCC and the
Department of Commerce have a consulting role with
regards to the State Department and the development of
US communications policy.
- USITAC WGIG Report
The Department of
State announces a request for comments on the report of
the Working Group on Internet Governance, which is
scheduled to be released to the public on July 18, 2005.
The UN Working Group on Internet
Governance (WGIG), created by Phase 1 of the WSIS,
was tasked ``to investigate and make proposals for
action, as appropriate, on the governance of Internet by
2005.'' The text of the report will be available at http://www.wgig.org or on the Department of State's World Summit on the
Information Society (WSIS) Web site at http://www.state.gov/e/eb/cip/wsis2005.
The Department of State will be accepting comments from
the public on the WGIG report through August 1, 2005.
Comments should be sent to Sally Shipman, International
Communications and Information Policy, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
In addition, according to the decision of PrepCom II,
all governments and other stakeholders are invited to
submit written comments and proposals on the issue of
Internet governance to the WSIS Executive Secretariat
by August 15. Thereafter, a compilation of these
contributions will be forwarded to the WSIS PrepCom III,
together with the report of the WGIG. Fed