|Wireless :: Unlicensed :: Part 15 :: WiFi|
Part 15 is Unlicensed but Authorized. An individual does not need a license to operate in this spectrum, but the equipment must be authorized and operate pursuant to regulations. Three types of unlicensed Service are defined and regulated under the Part 15 rules:
- Intentional radiators - these are devices that intentionally generate and emit RF energy by radiation or induction. Typical intentional radiators include cordless telephones, remote control toys, and other low power transmitters.
- Unintentional radiators – these are devices that generate and use RF energy within the device but are not intended to emit RF energy by radiation or conduction. Typical unintentional radiators include devices such as personal computers, printers, disk drives, and other digital devices that have internal “clocks” or circuitry used for timing within the device, TV interface devices such as VCRs, and carrier current system. Radio receivers, such as television receivers and AM/FM radios, are unintentional radiators.
- Incidental radiators – these are devices that generate RF energy during the course of their operation but are not intentionally designed to generate or emit that energy. Typical incidental radiators include motors and mechanical light switches." [FCC UDELWG p 4]
Networking devices which utilize Part 15 spectrum are intentional radiators.
"Spread spectrum is a term applied to communications systems that spread radio frequency energy over a wide bandwidth by means of an auxiliary spreading code. The spreading of the bandwidth can be accomplished in many different ways and the systems are usually classified by the type of spreading technique which they employ. They are commonly referred to as: direct sequence (or pseudonoise), frequency hopping, time hopping, pulsed FM (or chirp) and hybrid systems. The spreading or dilution of the energy in spread spectrum systems over a wide bandwidth results in several possible advantages: short range interference-free overlays on other emissions, resistance to interference from other emissions, and low detectability. While we do not anticipate that spread spectrum will replace other types of modulations, the unique characteristics of spread spectrum offer important options for the communications system designer." 1984 NPRM
Equipment and systems must be authorized by the FCC or telecommunications certification body. There should be a label on the equipment indicating certification. "These devices may not be imported and/or marketed until they have shown compliance with the technical standards which have been specified by the Commission. " FCC Authorization Page.
Derived From: Kenneth Carter, Ahmed Lahjouji, Neal McNeal, Unlicensed and Unshackled: A Joint OSP-OET White Paper on Unlicensed Devices and Their Regulatory Issues, OSP Working Paper 39 (May 2004):
Types of Part 15 Intentional Radiators
- General Low Power Devices: Low power devices are permitted to operate in a variety of specific bands and they emit only minimal levels of RF energy. Products such as baby monitors, garage door openers, and toy
wireless microphones fall into this category.
- Spread Spectrum and Digitally Modulated Devices Spread spectrum transmitters generally use a code sequence to spread a normally narrow band information signal over a wider band of frequencies. This allows for more devices to operate in a given frequency band and thus promotes spectrum efficiency. Many new cordless phones use spread spectrum techniques. Systems that use new forms of digital modulation techniques that have spectral occupancy characteristics similar to spread spectrum devices are also permitted to operate under the same rules as spread spectrum devices.
- Unlicensed PCS Devices: Unlicensed Personal Communications Services devices use digital modulation techniques for transmission. Service requirements reserve some frequencies for voice communication while the remaining spectrum is allocated for high-speed data transfer applications. U-PCS is widely used for wireless intra-office telephone systems like wireless PBX systems.
- Unlicensed NII Devices: Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure devices also use digital modulation techniques similar to spread spectrum devices. They are intended to provide short-range, high-speed wireless digital communications such as wireless local area networks (“W-LANs”) [including WiFi, Bluetooth], and to facilitate wireless access to the National Information Infrastructure.
- In 1997, the FCC again amended the Part 15 rules, this time to provide for operation of Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII)15 devices in the 5 GHz Frequency Range (5.15-5.35 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz). Once more, the FCC recognized that developments in a number of different digital technologies greatly increased the need to transfer large amounts of data from one network or system to another. In making this spectrum available, the FCC concluded that providing additional spectrum for unlicensed wideband operation would benefit a vast number of medical, educational, business, and industrial users. U-NII devices use digital modulation techniques similar to spread spectrum devices. They are intended to provide short-range, high-speed wireless digital communications such as wireless local area networks ("W-LANs"), and to facilitate wireless access to the National Information Infrastructure. With the use of a high- gain directional antenna, these devices may be used to complete point-to-point links of over 1 kilometer. [p. 8]
- Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Devices - Ultra-Wideband (“UWB”), a technology recently approved (February, 2002) by the FCC for a number of communications and sensing applications, is a signaling method which relies on extremely short pulses that generate signals with very wide bandwidths, sometimes up to several gigahertz. UWB signals go undetected by most conventional receivers, minimizing their threat as harmful interferers. UWB technologies are currently being used in a variety of applications such as ground penetrating radar and are likely to be used in a variety of emerging applications such as through-wall imaging and high-speed data transmission
Commons Property Regime
Part 15 spectrum is "unlicensed." Anyone can transmit and operate in this spectrum with appropriate certified devices as long as they comply with the conditions of operations. "Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators shall not be deemed to have any vested or recognizable right to continued use of any given frequency..." They cannot cause harmful interference to others and they must accept interference. Operators in Part 15 spectrum obtain no superior rights; while anyone may use the spectrum, no one may exclude others from using the spectrum.
In terms of property rights, this spectrum is a "commons." All have access to the resource - no one can exclude others from the resource - and the use of the resource is potentially rivalrous (the use of the resource by one detracts from the use of the resource by others, leading to a potential "tragedy of the commons"). [Faulhaber p 204 ("Part 15 spectrum has property rights akin to that of a commons: an asset available for the use of all, with common restrictions governing use restrictions for all" p 208 "'building fences' of property rights violates the commons principle.")] [Sicker p 3 ("Unlicensed wireless commons seems to fit more closely the model of a common resource pool, since additional users cannot be precluded from turning on their radios, but as users are added, the ability to communicate diminishes with increasing mutual interference.")] [Benkler 1998 p 7 ("This UNII Band, as it is called, creates a legal space for the first broadband infrastructure commons.")]
The FCC itself did not refer to this spectrum as a "commons." Its justification for the creation of the UNII bands as unlicensed rested primarily on the fact that these would be very short ranged services and "like other existing unlicensed devices, we believe that trying to license UNII devices individually would be administratively difficult if not impossible for both the Commission and the consumer and would greatly delay the implementation and use of this band by UNII devices." Therefore UNII is "more amenable to an unlicensed structure." UNII Order 1997 para 87.
License regimes had been put into place for the purpose of avoiding interference. [Faulhaber] Now the policy objective of avoiding interference would be achieved through (a) low powered short range transmitters and (b) the creation of a radio etiquette such that radios would technologically avoid interference.
The reality of the "tragedy of the commons" in Part 15 spectrum has been questionable. [Sicker] The classic tragedy of the commons is a common grassland where cattle graze. As all farmers have an incentive to utilize this resource to the fullest possible extent, and no farmers have an incentive to either conserve or replenish the grass in the grassland, the common land will be over grazed, the grass will be depleted, and no grass will be left for others. The distinction, however, between grassland and Part 15 spectrum is that with grassland, if the grass is depleted in one moment, it takes several months to grow back. With spectrum, if the bandwidth unavailable in one moment, it can be fully available in the next, fully "replenished."
How Common Goods relate to other types of property:
Excludable Non Excludable Rivalrous Private Goods
ex: food, clothing, toys, furniture, cars
ex: water, fish, hunting game, Part 15 spectrum
Non Rivalrous Club Goods
Ex: Cable Television
Ex: National Defense, free-to-air TV
Derived From: Connected & on the Go; Broadband Goes Wireless, Report of the FCC Wireless Broadband Access Task Force, p. 14, Feb. 2005
"The Commission’s Part 15 rules provide manufacturers with the flexibility to manufacture unlicensed devices using any technology as long as the devices comply with certain technical parameters that vary according to the particular bands of operation. In practice, unlicensed devices operate pursuant to both proprietary standards and industry-established standards. Many manufacturers manufacture proprietary equipment, which does not comport with any particular voluntary standard. Differentiating particular product features or functionality and tailoring equipment to particular applications are two reasons some manufacturers opt not to manufacture according to industry standards. Alternatively, many manufacturers develop equipment that operates pursuant to voluntary standards established by industry standards groups. These latter standards ensure interoperability between equipment manufactured by a variety of vendors. Some typical industry-developed standards used for unlicensed devices include Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11), Bluetooth, and WiMax (IEEE 802.16).
Derived From: FTC Report: Should Municipalities Provide Wireless Internet Service? p. 8-9 Oct 2006
“Wireless fidelity” (“Wi-Fi”) is the most commonly used wireless Internet standard today. Wi-Fi is a registered trademark term promoted by the Wi-Fi Alliance, a group of wireless Internet hardware and software providers that certify “802.11” products for network interoperability. An 802.11 network refers to a family of specifications approved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (“IEEE”) in 1997 for a wireless, over-the-air interface Local Area Network (“WLAN”). Generally, computer users can access the Internet with a high speed wireless connection if they are within 300 feet of a transmitting antenna and have the appropriate receiving hardware installed in their computer. Wi-Fi provides data transmission at speeds of up to 11-54 Mbps. Wi-Fi is commonly used to provide wireless Internet “hot spot” connections in coffee shops, airports, and on university campuses. The number of Wi-Fi hot spots in the U.S. has grown exponentially in recent years and may now number as many as 150,000, with approximately 30 million users.
Modulation Data Rate 802.11(b) 2.4 GHz DDS 11 MB/s 802.11(g) 2.4 GHz OFDM 54 MB/s 802.11(a) 5.8 GHz OFDM 54 MB/s
"Wi-Fi networks can be set up by installing multiple toaster-size antennas on street lights, traffic signals, and buildings, so that multiple wireless hotspots overlap each other to form a continuous “mesh” network of wireless signals. In order to provide an initial connection to the Internet and to manage network traffic, “backbone” technology (also called “backhaul” technology) must be installed at one or more points connected to the network. The installation of such a wireless network may be less expensive than installing a wireline network of the same size. ... (See Municipal Broadband)
"A user must have a computer or other device that is configured for wireless Internet use. Newer laptop computers often have such wireless connectivity built-in to them at the factory. Older computers may be adapted through the addition of a wireless Internet “card.” "
Broadband Plan Recommendations
- Recommendation 5.11 The FCC , within the next 10 years, should free up a new, contiguous nationwide band for unlicensed use
Part 15 dates back to 1938, originally created to cover "wireless phonographs." [Faulhaber p 204] While users of Part 15 spectrum do not need licenses, Part 15 devices must first be certified by the FCC. Part 15 devices also generally operate at low power limits.
- 47 CFR Part 15 Subpart A
- 47 CFR § 15.1 Scope of this part
- This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the technical specifications, administrative requirements and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices.
- 47 CFR § 15.5 General Conditions of Operation
(a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators shall not be deemed to have any vested or recognizable right to continued use of any given frequency by virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems, on the basis of prior notification of use pursuant to §90.63(g) of this chapter.
(b) Operation of an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference is caused and that interference must be accepted that may be caused by the operation of an authorized radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) equipment, or by an incidental radiator.
(c) The operator of a radio frequency device shall be required to cease operating the device upon notification by a Commission representative that the device is causing harmful interference. Operation shall not resume until the condition causing the harmful interference has been corrected.
(d) Intentional radiators that produce Class B emissions (damped wave) are prohibited.
- 47 CFR § 15.9 Prohibition Against Eavesdropping
- Except for the operations of law enforcement officers conducted under lawful authority, no person shall use, either directly or indirectly, a device operated pursuant to the provisions of this part for the purpose of overhearing or recording the private conversations of others unless such use is authorized by all of the parties engaging in the conversation.
- 47 CFR Subpart C Intentional Radiators
- 47 CFR § 15.245-248 Operation within the bands 902-928 MHz, 2435-2465 MHz, 5785-5815 MHz, 10500-10550 MHz, and 24075-24175 MHz
- 47 CFR § 15.247
- Summary Rural ISP Workshop Julius Knapp, FCC OET , presentation
- Provides for frequency hopping systems and digital transmission systems
- Power limit: Up to 1 Watt output power
- Power reduction for high-gain antennas (omni vs. pt.-to-pt.)
- Out-of-band & spurious emissions limits
- Antenna must be permanently attached or unique connector
- IEEE 802.11(b) & (g), Bluetooth operate under these rules in the 2.4 GHz band.
- 47 CFR Subpart E Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices
- 47 CFR § 15.401 Scope
- This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands.
- 47 CFR § 407 General Technical Requirements
|902-928 MHz||47 CFR § 15.245-248 ISM Band Allows 1 Watt Transmitter Power||
Cordless Phones, Walkie Talkies, Baby Monitors, Garage Door Openers
|2400 - 2483 MHz||ISM Band Allows 1 Watt Transmitter Power|
Industrial Scientific and Medical Band (ISM)
47 CFR § 15.245-248
Wireless Networking: 802.11b : 22 MHz (2.4 GHz Band) : 11 Mbps Channel Capacity : 5.5 Mbps Typical Data Rate : Range 250' [Working Paper 39 p 29]
Wireless Networking: 802.11g : 40 MHz (2.4 GHz Band) : 54 Mbps Channel Capacity : 32 Mbps Typical Data Rate : Range 150' [Working Paper 39 p 29]
Wireless Networking: Bluetooth : 1 MHz (2.4 GHz Band) : 1 Mbps Channel Capacity : 721 Kbps Typical Data Rate : Range 30' [Working Paper 39 p 29] 2450 MHz
Wireless Networking: HomeRF : 1-5 MHz (2.4 GHz Band) : 10 Mbps Channel Capacity : Range 150' [Working Paper 39 p 29]
Cisco, Enterprise Best Practices for iOS Devices on Cisco Wireless LAN, at 4 (rev. Nov. 2016) (due to congestion, Google and Apple have concluded that 2.4 MHz “is not considered as best suiting the needs for business . . . applications.”)
Cordless Phones, Walkie Talkies, Baby Monitors, Garage Door Openers. Wireless T1 replacements / Ethernet Bridges, RFID WiFi
|3650 - 3700 MHz||Licensed, Non Exclusive. Power limit 1 watt? FCC Order June 2007|
|5.091 - 5.25 GHz||"WRC-95 allocated this band on a primary basis to fixed-satellite (Earth-to-space) service (FSS uplinks) to provide feeder links for non geostationary satellite systems in the mobile satellite service (MSS) on a coprimary basis with government aeronautical radionavigation." UNII Order 1997 para 6 (why the 5.15 - 5.25 GHz UNII band is indoor only)|
5.15-5.25 GHz UNII
|the maximum conducted output power over the frequency band of operation shall not exceed the lesser of 50 mW or 4 dBm + 10 log B, where B is the 26-dB emission bandwidth in MHz. In addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 4 dBm in any 1-MHz band. If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used, both the maximum conducted output power and the peak power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi. [47 CFR § 15.407 (a)(1)] all emissions outside of the 5.15-5.35 GHz band shall not exceed an EIRP of -27 dBm/MHz. [47 CFR § 15.407 (b)(1)]||Wireless LANs, WiFi|
|5.25-5.35 GHz UNII||the maximum conducted output power over the frequency bands of operation shall not exceed the lesser of 250 mW or 11 dBm + 10 log B, where B is the 26 dB emission bandwidth in megahertz. In addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 11 dBm in any 1 megahertz band. If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used, both the maximum conducted output power and the peak power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi. [47 CFR § 15.407 (a)(2)] all emissions outside of the 5.15-5.35 GHz band shall not exceed an EIRP of -27 dBm/MHz. Devices operating in the 5.25-5.35 GHz band that generate emissions in the 5.15-5.25 GHz band must meet all applicable technical requirements for operation in the 5.15-5.25 GHz band (including indoor use) or alternatively meet an out-of-band emission EIRP limit of -27 dBm/MHz in the 5.15-5.25 GHz band. [47 CFR § 15.407 (b)(2)]||Wireless LANs, WiFi|
|5.47-5.725 GHz UNII||the maximum conducted output power over the frequency bands of operation shall not exceed the lesser of 250 mW or 11 dBm + 10 log B, where B is the 26 dB emission bandwidth in megahertz. In addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 11 dBm in any 1 megahertz band. If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used, both the maximum conducted output power and the peak power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi. [47 CFR § 15.407(a)(2)] all emissions outside of the 5.47-5.725 GHz band shall not exceed an EIRP of -27 dBm/MHz. [47 CFR § 15.407 (b)(3)]||Wireless LANs, WiFi|
|5725 - 5875 MHz||ISM Band Allows 1 Watt Transmitter Power. Link Nodes Campus.|
|5785-5815 MHz||47 CFR § 15.245-248||Wireless T1 replacements / Ethernet Bridges, RFID|
|5.725-5.825 GHz UNII||
the maximum conducted output power over the frequency band of operation shall not exceed the lesser of 1 W or 17 dBm + 10 log B, where B is the 26-dB emission bandwidth in MHz. In addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 17 dBm in any 1-MHz band. If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used, both the maximum conducted output power and the peak power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi. However, fixed point-to-point U-NII devices operating in this band may employ transmitting antennas with directional gain up to 23 dBi without any corresponding reduction in the transmitter peak output power or peak power spectral density. For fixed, point-to-point U-NII transmitters that employ a directional antenna gain greater than 23 dBi, a 1 dB reduction in peak transmitter power and peak power spectral density for each 1 dB of antenna gain in excess of 23 dBi would be required. Fixed, point-to-point operations exclude the use of point-to-multipoint systems, omnidirectional applications, and multiple collocated transmitters transmitting the same information. The operator of the U-NII device, or if the equipment is professionally installed, the installer, is responsible for ensuring that systems employing high gain directional antennas are used exclusively for fixed, point-to-point operations. 47 CFR § 15.407(a)(2)all emissions within the frequency range from the band edge to 10 MHz above or below the band edge shall not exceed an EIRP of -17 dBm/MHz; for frequencies 10 MHz or greater above or below the band edge, emissions shall not exceed an EIRP of -27 dBm/MHz. [47 CFR § 15.407 (b)(4)]
Wireless Networking: 802.11a : 40 MHz (5.7 GHz Band) : 54 Mbps Channel Capacity : 32 Mbps Typical Data Rate : Range 75' [Working Paper 39 p 29]
|Wireless LANs, WiFi|
|5.9 Ghz||The Comm’n Seeks to Update and Refresh the Record in the “Unlicensed Nat’l Info. Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band” Proceeding, Public Notice, 31 FCC Rcd. 6130, 6133 (2016).|
|10500-10550 MHz||47 CFR § 15.245-248|
|24075-24175 MHz||47 CFR § 15.245-248|
|57-64 GHz||"used for transferring large volumes of data over relatively short distances"|
|64 - 71 GHz||Use of Spectrum Bands Above 24 GHz for Mobile Radio Services, et al., Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 31 FCC Rcd. 8014, 8062 ¶ 125 (2016).|
- VoIP over Wifi could substitute up to 60% of mobile usage as quality improves. Substitutability at home, work, and partially other indoor. Not substitutable for other locations and car. Could reduce mobile phone costs $6-12. - Stagg Newman, State of Tech Dev, TAC July 2006
3650 - 3700 MHz
Derived From: FCC Wireless Services 3650-3700 MHz Radio Service: "On March 10, 2005, the Commission adopted a Report and Order, FCC 05-56 ( pdf ), establishing service rules to open the 3650 MHz band for terrestrial fixed and mobile wireless broadband operations. In the Memorandum Opinion and Order, FCC 07-99 ( pdf ), adopted on May 22, 2007, the Commission addressed petitions for reconsideration of the Report and Order by affirming the rules and policies adopted in 2005 while at the same time ensuring that incumbent, grandfathered Earth stations and Federal radiolocation stations in this band are protected from harmful interference. The Commission adopted a flexible and innovative regulatory framework for the 3650-3700 MHz band that would not require traditional frequency coordination among non-Federal users with the exception of incumbent Fixed Satellite Service Licensees (FSS). These rules involve minimal regulatory burdens to encourage multiple entrants and to stimulate the rapid expansion of broadband services, especially in America's rural heartland. A license for the 3650-3700 MHz Radio Service will consist of a non-exclusive nationwide license , combined with fixed and base station registration . All interested parties must have a non-exclusive nationwide license prior to registering a fixed or base station. Mobile and portable stations, which are typically used by consumers, i.e. , end users or subscribers, do not require a separate license and do not have to be registered in ULS. The non-exclusive nationwide license does not authorize operation until each base or fixed station is registered and in an "Accepted" status and the nationwide license is updated on ULS. The registration process will also facilitate protection of grandfathered, incumbent stations from interference. There are two types of grandfathered, incumbent stations that new 3650 MHz band licensees must protect: non-Federal and Federal.
- Non-Federal . Absent an agreement between the relevant licensees, new terrestrial stations are prohibited (and thus base and fixed stations can not be registered) within 150 km circular protection zones established around each grandfathered Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Earth station.
- Federal . Requests to register base or fixed stations within 80 km circular protection zones established around each of three Federal Government radiolocation stations will only be approved upon successful coordination by the FCC with NTIA. Rule Section 90.1331 outlines the protection requirements for the three federal government radiolocation stations at St. Inigoes, MD 38 10 00 N 76 23 00 W; Pascagoula, MS 30 22 00 N 88 29 00 W; and Pensacola, FL 30 21 28 N 87 16 26 W. Note: Licensees should also determine if there are any nearby Federal Government radar systems operating in adjacent bands that could affect their operations by consulting NTIA TR-99-361 . "
(ET Docket No 04-151; WT Docket No 05-96). See FCC IB >> 3650 MHz Grandfathered Earth Stations. Report and Order (March 10, 2005) FCC opens access to 3650-3700 MHz band, Muni 3/15/2005 FCC Opens Access to New Spectrum for Wireless Broadband in the 3650 MHz Band. Press Release, FCC 3/11/2005 FCC Adopts Rule Changes for Smart Radios. Press Release, FCC 3/11/2005 FCC Protects Spectrum From Software Radio, eWeek 3/11/2005 FCC Begins Rulemaking Proposing to Allow Wireless Broadband Operations in the 3650-3700 MHz Band., FCC 4/27/2004
FCC PROPOSES RULES TO FACILITATE WIRELESS BROADBAND SERVICES USING VACANT TV CHANNELS. The FCC proposed to allow unlicensed devices to operate in the broadcast television spectrum at locations where the spectrum is not in use by television stations. News Release. (Dkt No 02-380 , 04-186). Adopted: 05/13/2004. News Media Contact: Bruce Romano at 2470 OET. , FCC 5/18/2004
- FCC Enforcement Bureau
- ARRL Collection of Enforcement Actions
- ISP Planet When the FCC Comes Knocking on your Door May 2002
- In Re Neptuno Networks, Inc., EB-06-SJ-022, NALF (Jan. 23, 2007)
- In this Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture ("NAL"), we find that Neptuno Networks, Inc. ("Neptuno"), an Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) operator, in San Juan, PR, apparently willfully and repeatedly violated Section 301 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended ("Act"), by operating unlicensed radio transmitters. We conclude, pursuant to Section 503(b) of the Act, that Neptuno is apparently liable for forfeiture in the amount of twenty thousand dollars ($20,000).
- On May 18, June 6, June 8, and June 14, 2006, resident agents from the San Juan Office observed Neptuno operate U-NII devices within the 5.15-5.25 GHz band outdoors at three separate locations, in violation of Section 15.407(e) of the Rules. Neptuno admitted that it had been operating in this band outdoors at these locations for close to five years. Neptuno also admitted to operating in this band outdoors at approximately 68 other sites. On June 8 and June 14, 2006, resident agents observed Neptuno operate U-NII devices on 5.375 GHz, a frequency outside of the U-NII bands. Based on the evidence before us, we find that Neptuno failed to operate its U-NII devices in accordance with the requirements of Section 15.407 of the Rules.
- FCC CHAIRMAN TOM WHEELER STATEMENT ON PROTECTING CONSUMERS FROM HOTEL WI-FI BLOCKING. STMT. OCHTW https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-331706A1.docx
- Released: 01/27/2015. FCC ENFORCEMENT ADVISORY - WARNING: WI-FI BLOCKING IS PROHIBITED; PERSONS OR BUSINESSES CAUSING INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE TO WI-FI HOT SPOTS ARE SUBJECT TO ENFORCEMENT ACTION. (DA No. 15-113). EB https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-15-113A1.docx
- CISCO Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2016-2021 (Feb. 7, 2017) p. 21 Overall WiFi Traffic Growth
- Intel: Most Unwired Cities Survey "Today, there are more than 3,701 hotspots in the United States in locations such as cafes, airports, public parks and hotels." Intel, Most Unwired Cities Survey (2003) (citing IDC, 2003)
- WiFi hotspots top 45,000, Register Oct 22, 2003 (citing Pyramid Research "Around half of the world's hotspots are in Asia (24,300) while Europe (10,160) and the US (10,970) boast roughly the same number.")
- FCC Fourth Sec. 706 Report (Sept. 2004) “Wi-Fi hardware market achieving staggering growth in 2003,…expecting 22.7 million NIC [network interface card] and AP units rolled out in 2003, a 214% increase from 2002’s 7.2 million units shipments.” [p. 19] According to industry, approximately 2,000 to 3,000 WISPs serving nation’s rural areas [p.31]
- "Top 10" Wireless Internet Service Providers, Broadband Wireless Exchange's 2004 (January 2004) Number of Wireless LAN Hot Spots in US: 2000: 2,000 - 2001: 5,000 - 2002: 11,000. Vendors Pursue Gold at End of Rainbow, Network World at 14 July 22, 2002 (citing Cahners In-Stat/MDR) 400,000 unl subs summer 2002 per Alvarion
- Connected & on the Go; Broadband Goes Wireless, Report of the FCC Wireless Broadband Access Task Force, Feb. 2005
- ARRL FCC Part-15 Rules: Unlicensed RF Devices
- Thomas W. Hazlett, A Law & Economics Approach to Spectrum Property Rights: A Response to Weiser and Hatfield, 15 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 975 (June, 2008).
- Jerry Brito, The Spectrum Commons in Theory and Practice, 2007 STAN. TECH. L. REV. 1 (2007).
- Arnon Tonmukayakul and Martin B. H. Weiss, A Transaction Cost Analysis of Secondary vs. Unlicensed Spectrum Use TPRC 2006
- Douglas C. Sicker, Dirk Grunwald, Eric Anderson, Christian Doerr, Brita Munsinger, Anmol Sheth, Examining The Wireless Commons TPRC 2006 ("In this paper we use measurements of wireless networks and show that a common metric that leads people to believe there is a tragedy really demonstrates nothing of the sort. We also show how system architecture determines how rapidly a tragedy occurs.")
- Paul Weiser and Dale Hatfield, Policing the Spectrum Commons, SSRN, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 101 (2005)
- Thomas W. Hazlett, Spectrum Tragedies, 22 YALE J. ON REG. 242 (Summer, 2005).
- Gerald R Faulhaber and David Farber, Spectrum Management: Property Rights, Markets, and the Commons Chapter 7 Rethinking Rights and Regulations: International responses to new communications technologies (MIT Press) Google Books
- Paper: Kevin Werbach, Towards a Unified Theory of Wireless Communication, SSRN 3/11/2004
- Kevin Werbach, Supercommons: Toward a Unified Theory of Wireless Communication, 82 TEX. L. REV. 863 (March, 2004).
- A brief history of WiFi, The Economist (Jun. 10 2004) (ISM was known as the garbage band)
- Jeremiah Johnston, The Paradise of the Commons or Privileged Private Property: What Direction Should the FCC Take on Spectrum Regulation?, 4 J. HIGH TECH. L. 173 (2004).
- Tim Pozar, Regulations Affecting 802.11 Deployment (2004) (nice compilation of relevant regulations)
- Kenneth R. Carter, Ahmed Lahjouji, and Neal McNeil, Unlicensed and Unshackled: A Joint OSP-OET White Paper On Unlicensed Devices and Their Regulatory Issues , FCC May 2003. [ Acrobat | News Release | Public Notice ]
- An Architecture for Securing Wireless Networks by Gregory R.Scholz, Northrop Grumman Information Technology, IPJ 10/9/02
- Thomas Hazlett, 2001, "The Wireless Craze, the Unlimited Bandwidth Myth, the Spectrum Auction Faux Pas, and the Punchline to Ronald Coase's "Big Jokes": An Essay on Airwave Allocation Policy," Harvard J. Law & Tech, 14(2), Spring, 335-545
- David P. Reed, Why Spectrum is Not Property: The Case for an Entirely New Regime of Wireless Communications Policy, Reed’s Locus, Feb 27, 2001 (draft).
- Yochai Benkler, The Commons as a Neglected Factor of Information Policy, TPRC 1998
- Benkler, Yochai, 1997, Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of the Digitally Networked Environment, 11 Harv. J. L & Tech.287 (Winter 1997-98).
- Heller, Michael, 1998, "The Tragedy of the Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets," 111 Harvard Law Review, 621-25.
- Walter C Scales, Potential Use of Spread Spectrum Techniques in Non-Government Applications, MITRE (Dec. 1, 1980)
- George R. Cooper, Ray W. Nettleton, and David P. Grybos, 'Cellular Land Mobile Radio: Why Spread Spectrum?', IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 17-24, March 1979
- J.R. Juroshek, 'A Compatability Analysis of Spread-Spectrum and FM Land Mobile Radio Systems', U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Report 79-23, PB-300651, August 1979
- L.A. Berry and E.J. Haakinson, 'Spectrum Efficiency for Multiple Independent Spread-Spectrum Land Mobile Radio Systems', U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Report 78-11, PB-291539, November 1978
- Paul Newhouse, 'Procedures for Analyzing Interference Caused by Spread-Spectrum Signals', ITT Research Institute, Report No. ESD-TR-77-003, AD A056911, February 1978.
- J.R. Juroshek, 'A Preliminary Estimate of the Effects of Spread-Spectrum Interference on TV', U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Report 78-6, PB-286623, June 1978
- International Telecommunication Union, International Radio Consultative Committee, Recommendations and Reports of the CCIR, 1978, XIVth Plenary Assembly, Kyoto, 1978, 'Spread Spectrum Modulation Techniques', Report 651, Volume 1, pp. 4-14
- International Telecommunication Union, International Radio Consultative Committee, Recommendations and Reports to the CCIR, 1978, XIVth Plenary Assembly, Kyoto, 1978, 'Considerations of Interference from Spread-Spectrum Systems to Conventional Voice Communications Systems', Report 652, Volume 1, pp. 14-22.
- Robert P. Eckert and Peter M. Kelly, 'Implementing Spread Spectrum Technology in the Land Mobile Radio Services', IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-22, pp. 867-869, August 1977
- Leonard Farber and J. Cormack, 'Performance of Voice Communications Systems in the Presence of Spread Spectrum Interference', IIT Research Institute, Report No. ESD-TR-77-005, AD A050844, December 1977
- Spread Spectrum Techniques, ed. Robert C. Dixon, New York, IEEE Press, 1976
- R.C. Dixon, Spread Spectrum Systems, New York, Wiley-Interscience, 1976
- Angel Technologies Corporation (Broadband via light airplane)
- Office of Engineering and Technology, FCC
- Wireless Broadband Access Task Force
- Spectrum Policy Task Force
- Spectrum Policy Branch, Policy and Rules Division, Office of Engineering and Technology, FCC
- Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, FCC
- Kenneth R. Carter, Ahmed Lahjouji, and Neal McNeil, Unlicensed and Unshackled: A Joint OSP-OET White Paper On Unlicensed Devices and Their Regulatory Issues , FCC May 2003. [ Acrobat | News Release | Public Notice ]
- Michael Marcus, Jim Burtle, Bruce Franca, Ahmed Lahjouji, Neal McNeil, Report of the Unlicensed Devices and Experimental Licenses Working Group, Federal Communications Commission Spectrum Policy Task Force 9 (Nov. 15, 2002) (charting growth of Part 15 spread spectrum equipment authorizations).
- 802.11 WiFi
- Airshare Community Networks
- FreeNetwork Wireless
- Free Press
- M Marcus, Early Civil Spread Spectrum History
- Part-15.org Wireless Internet Service Provider Organization
- Personal Communications Industry Association
- Wireless ISP Association
- Cellular Telephone Industry Association
- Making the Connection: 2004 National Summit for Community Wireless Networks webcasts will be uploaded
- Odessa Office Training Aids for WISPs
- Steve Stroh Focus On Broadband Wireless Internet Access
- WiFi Alliance
- Wi-Fi Hotspot Industry News & Info
- Wireless Communications Alliance
- Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance
- WISP Directory The WISP Directory is a global listing of wireless ISPs and WISP-related resources. The site also includes an industry-related news blog that's updated almost daily. The site also includes additional resources such as info on how to establish a WISP including an FAQ and a tradeshow & event calendar in addition to a subscription-based knowledge base for those interested in starting a WISP.
- Young Design, Inc, Michael Young