Federal Internet Law & Policy
An Educational Project


Dont be a FOOL; The Law is Not DIY
Internet Addresses
- History
- NTIA & Fed Activity
- Root Servers
- ccTLDs
- - .us
- -
- gTLDs
- - .gov
- - .edu
- - .mil
- - .xxx
- IP Numbers
- - IPv6
- NATs
- Ports
- Security
- Trademark
- AntiCybersquatter Consumer Protection Act
- Gripe Sites
- Truth in Domain Names
Telephone Addresses

ccTLDs are under the authority of the Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and are delegated to nations for administration.  ICANN generally creates a ccTLD for country codes listed in  ISO 3166 (ICANN has also created dot EU and dot Asia). This process was originally implemented in order to avoid having the DNS authority determine what is and is not a country. [RFC 1591]

Countries are permitted to administer their ccTLDs pursuant to their own policies.  Some countries, such as Tuvalu, have sought to exploit their ccTLDs in the market; .tv is marketed as the TLD for television.  Other countries have followed restrictive policies, permitting registrations only from residents of their own country.  See, for example, the policy of the Isle of Man.  Historically, because of the casual manner of administration of ccTLDs, it was not uncommon that a ccTLD was administered by an entity that had no direct ties to the related country. This has created problems where those countries have sought to gain control of the ccTLDs or where the third-parties have inefficiently managed the ccTLD space. Getting a ccTLD online can be a source of significant national pride. See experience of Iraq and Afghanistan. 

A ccTLD issue is the introduction of internationalize domain names using non ASCII characters.

One issue is the possibility of ccTLD using different alphabets.





2/3 of ccTLDs are hosted in their own countries. but a lot of those that aren't are really tiny countries. 18 ccTLDs aren't slaved to the core - meaning that they can be cut off from the global net and is a violation of RFC 2182. Example - Kenya: Root server and exchange point is local and outside connectivity is satellite. - NANOG, by packetclearinghouse Winter 2006


  • Internet names for Asia launched, BBC 10/10/2007
  • The .TK Domain Generates 10% of Tiny Pacific Nation's Wealth, CircleID 9/18/2007
  • Dot Asia: First TLD Awarded to a Transnational Entity Without Formal Government Structure, CircleID 5/25/2007
  • .eu one year on: over 2.5 million have taken up a European address on the web, Europa 4/12/2007
  • ICANN Gives Asia Its Dot, Internet News 12/8/2006
  • Evolution in the Management of Country Code Top-Level Domain Names (ccTLDs), OECD 12/1/2006
  • International net domains 'risky', BBC 10/30/2006
  • ICANN warns mistake on non-English Web addresses could 'permanently break Internet', USA Today 11/2/2006
  • New .EU Domain Name System Irks U.S. Firm, Internet Week 4/12/2006
  • Europeans rush to register .eu domain names, Reuters 4/7/2006
  • Becoming a .eu Registrar, Europa 6/15/2005
  • .EU will be live by Jan '06, Register 4/22/2005
  • Final countdown to .eu has begun, Europa 4/22/2005
  • European Domain Name Gets Green Light, eweek 3/25/2005
  • European Commission signs contract with .eu Registry, Europa 12/10/2004
  • ITU to hold Workshop on Member States' experiences with ccTLDs, ITU 12/20/02
  • Requirements for International Coordination of the Domain Name System, CENTR 6/10/0
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