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Industry :: US National Backbones Dont be a FOOL; The Law is Not DIY

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Carrier
Network Map
Status / Monitoring NOC
History
Notices: Peering; OI; IPv6
1

Level3
AS3356

Map
  • Looking Glass
  • Internet Health Report
  • 1998 KDG renamed Level3
    2003 Acquired Genuity
    2005 acquired Wiltel
    2006 acquired ICG
    2007 acquired Broadwing
    2011 acquired Global Crossing
    2014 acquiring TW Telecom
    2 Cogent Communications
    AS174
    Map
  • Performance
  • Looking Glass
  • Network Status
  • Internet Health Report
  • 1999 Founded
    2001 acquired Netrail
    2002 acquired PSINet, Fibercity
    2003 Acquired Fiber Network Solution
    2004 acquired several companies
    3 TeliaSonera International Carrier
    AS 1299
       

    1998 enters US Market
    2000 Telia acquired AGIS
    2001 Telia US acquired by Aleron
    2002 Telia and Sonera merged

    • "Atlas 10" 2007 with 1.82%. ATLAS Internet Observatory, 2009 Annual Report
    • Listed as Transit Free by Renesys 2009
    • Tier 1 [Israel, Besen 2012]
    • Tier 1 per FCC [Level 3 / GC Merger ¶ 22 2011]
    • In partnership with NLR for IP transit service
    • Telegeography report on Telia
    • TSIC Extends 100G Connectivity in the US, Jan. 19, 2015 Press Release ("TeliaSonera International Carrier (TSIC) continues its North American expansion by partnering with 365 Data Centers, one of the top U.S. colocation providers, to deliver 100Gbps connectivity and data center services in key tier 2 cities such as Buffalo, Tampa, Nashville, St Louis, Cleveland and Indianapolis.")
    • Dan Rayburn, How Transit Works, What it Costs, and Why Its So Important, Streaming Media Blog (Feb. 24, 2014) (listed as one of of the more well known transit providers)
    • Letter from Markham Erickson, Counsel to Netflix, Inc., to Marlene Dortch, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-57, at 6 (December 23, 2014),   ("the competitive options for transit services to high-bandwidth customers in the United States number only six—Cogent, Level 3, Tata, TeliaSonera, XO, and NTT."
    • Letter from Robert Cooper, Counsel to Cogent, to Marlene Dortch, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-57, at 6 (filed Nov. 18, 2014) . (Cogents competitors include Level 3, Tata, Telia, XO , and NTT. Secondary competitors include Sprint, PCCW, Telecom Italia, GTT and Zayo")
    • [Luckie 2012 (showing transit market 2002-2013, showing Telia significantly increasing customer base.)]
    • [Cloudfare 2017 (referencing Telia, GTT, Tata, Cogent as one of the approximately 13 Tier 1 networks)]
    4

    NTT Verio
    AS2914

    Map
  • Internet Health Report
  • 1996 Verio founded
    2000 NTT acquired Verio
    5 GTT Map   2009 acquired WBS Connect, and begins to offer IP Transit (Wiki) (Investor Briefing)
    2011 acquired PacketExchange (wiki) (Investor Briefing)
    2012 acquired nLayer (wiki) (Investor Briefing)
    2013 Partners with Telecom Serbia (GTT)
    2013 acquires Inteliquent's Tinet backbone (Investor Briefing)
    6 Telecom Italia Sparkle (AS6762)      
    • Letter from Robert Cooper, Counsel to Cogent, to Marlene Dortch, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-57, at 6 (filed Nov. 18, 2014) . (Cogents competitors include Level 3, Tata, Telia, XO , and NTT. Secondary competitors include Sprint, PCCW, Telecom Italia, GTT and Zayo")
    7

    Tata Communications 

    Map   2011 acquired CDN Bitgravity
    2006 acquired Teleglobe (entrance into N American market?)
    2014 rumors that Tata wants to leave the telecom business
    • Native v6 PDF
    • Tier 1 [Israel, Besen 2012]
    • Tier 1 per FCC [Level 3 / GC Merger ¶ 22 2011]
    • Dan Rayburn, How Transit Works, What it Costs, and Why Its So Important, Streaming Media Blog (Feb. 24, 2014) (listed as one of of the more well known transit providers)
    • Letter from Markham Erickson, Counsel to Netflix, Inc., to Marlene Dortch, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-57, at 6 (December 23, 2014),   ("the competitive options for transit services to high-bandwidth customers in the United States number only six—Cogent, Level 3, Tata, TeliaSonera, XO, and NTT."
    • Letter from Robert Cooper, Counsel to Cogent, to Marlene Dortch, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-57, at 6 (filed Nov. 18, 2014) . (Cogents competitors include Level 3, Tata, Telia, XO , and NTT. Secondary competitors include Sprint, PCCW, Telecom Italia, GTT and Zayo")
    • [Luckie 2012 (showing transit market 2002-2013, showing Tata significantly increasing customer base.)]
    • [Cloudfare 2017 (referencing Telia, GTT, Tata, Cogent as one of the approximately 13 Tier 1 networks)]
    8 Hurricane Electric Map
  • Looking Glass
  • 1994 Founded
    2002 acquired Lightning Internet Services
    9 XO 
    AS 2828
    Map
  • XO Network Diagnostics Tools
  • Internet Health Report
  • 1994 Concentric operates its own network
    2000 Concentric and Nextlink merge to form XO
    2004 Acquired Allegiance Telecom (which had acquired Intermedia Communications in 2002)
    12 Verizon
    AS701
    Map
  • Looking Glass
  • Internet Health Report
  • 2006 acquired WCOM
    13 Zayo Group 6461    

    2012 acquired Abovenet
    2011 acquired 360Net

    15 Century Link Maps
  • Network Statistics
  • Internet Health Report (Qwest, Savvis)
  • 2009 acquired Embarq
    2011 acquired Savvis, Qwest, changed name from CenturyTel to Century Link

  • FCC Public Notice July 12, 2011 (SAVVIS)
  • MO&O (Mar. 18, 2011) (Qwest)
  • 17 PCCW 3491     Apparently acquired Beyond the Internet, acquiring CAIS as well
    • Letter from Robert Cooper, Counsel to Cogent, to Marlene Dortch, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-57, at 6 (filed Nov. 18, 2014) . (Cogents competitors include Level 3, Tata, Telia, XO , and NTT. Secondary competitors include Sprint, PCCW, Telecom Italia, GTT and Zayo")
    19

    Sprint
    AS1239

    Map
  • Looking Glass
  • Internet Health Report
  • 1982 Sprint and GTE Telenet merge
    1986 GTE Sprint merge with United Telecom to become US Sprint
    1991 NSF contracts with Sprint to be intl connections manager for NSFNET
    1992 Sprint interconnects at CIX
    1994 Sprint receives NSF contract to build one of the original NAPs
    1999 Identified as one of five major backbones [Cremer p 14 n 12]
    2000 Sprint merger with MCI blocked
    20

    Deutsche Telekom

         
  • Tier 1 [Israel, Besen 2012]
  • 21 AT&T
    AS7018
    Interactive Map
  • Performance
  • Internet Health Report
  • PeeringDB (no IXP info)
  • 1998 acquired TCI; creates AT&T Broadband service
    1999 acquired IBM Networks
    1999 Identified as one of five major backbones [Cremer p 14 n 12]
    2000 acquired CERFNET
    2005 acquired by SBC and renamed AT&T
    2006 acquired Bell South
    23 Telefonica      
    30 Hibernia Networks    

    2013 acquired Atrato IP Networks

     
    35 Global Cloud Exchange     2014 rebranded from Reliance Global Telecom  
    78 China Telecom (AS4134)    

    2000 China Telecom USA, wholly owned sub of China Telecom, established.
    2002 Receives 214 authorization from FCC
    2007 Changes name to China Telecom Americas
    2008 Partners with Sprint

     
    80 Allstream Map   1999 Founded
    2003 AT&T Canada rebranded Allstream
    2004 acquired from Bell Canada by MTS
    Has POPs in USA but looks like it markets specifically to Canada.
    80 Bell Canada


    2004: Acquired GT Canada from 360Net

    80 BT Alliance Map IP Performance 1995 Awarded contract to build EuropaNet
    80 Charter Communications     2016 acquired TWC
    80 Comcast
    AS 7922
    Map  

    2002 acquired AT&T Broadband
    2014 acquiring TWC

    80 Cox AS 22773      
    80 Electric Lightwave Map
    1990 founded
    2002 acquired by Citizens Communications
    2006 acquired by Integra Telecom from Ctizens
  • IPv6 natively supported
  • 80 IDT / Winstar / Goodnet

    2001 IDT acquires Winstar
    2002 IDT acquires MFS from WCOM
    2003 IDT makes failed offer for Global Crossing


    80 Lightower / Sidera Networks / RCN / Globix Map  

    1989 Globix founded as Bell Technlogy Group
    1994 Globix starts offering service
    1998 change name from Bell Technology Group to Globix
    2002 Globix files bankruptcy
    2007 Globix renamed NEON, acquired by RCN
    2010 RCN renamed Sidera
    2011 Sidera purchases naming rights to one of Washington Capitals practice rinks
    2013 acquired by Berkshire and rebranded as Lighttower (Lightower was founded in 2006 as a fiber service)

     
    80 Megapath Map   1999 Founded
    2002 acquired Epoch
    2006 merged with Netifice
    2007 acquired DSL.net
    2010 partnership with Speakeasy and Covad [Megapath PR]
  • Peering Policy
  • 80 Neutral Tandem        
    80 One Call

    Does not resolve 2011

    80 PAETEC MapPDF   1998 founded
    2007 acquired Mcleod
    Now WindStream
     
    90

    Internet2

    An academic backbone

    Map
  • GlobalNOC Realtime Atlas
  • Network Status
  • 1996 Founded
    1999 Abilene backbone network operational [I2 Timeline]
    2007 Merger discussions with National Lambda Rail fail [NLR]
  • Commercial Peering Service
  • IPv6 Working Group
  • 91 DREN (govt)       "The Defense Research and Engineering Network (DREN) is DoD's recognized research and engineering network. The DREN is a robust, high-capacity, low-latency nation-wide network that provides connectivity between and among the HPCMP's geographically dispersed High Performance Computing (HPC) user sites, HPC Centers, and other networks. The DREN Wide Area Networking (WAN) capability is provided under a commercial contract. The DREN WAN service provider has built DREN as a virtual private network based on its commercial infrastructure."
    91 ESNet
    AS293
     
  • Weathermap
  • Network Map
  • 1988 Goes Online
    • Peering Information
    • Tier one
    • Provides services to energy research
    • Listed as Transit Free by Renesys 2009 (peers w all members of DFZ, but is not a player in the commercial space)
    91 NASA Integrated Communications Service (govt)       "CSO is the Communications Services Office (CSO) and is the NASA office responsible for delivery of communications services at NASA. This responsibility includes the NASA Integrated Communications Services (NICS) contract. NICS is part of the I3P Program responsible for providing communication services across the NASA enterprise. " (NICS, original NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) dates back to at least 1996; Archive.org has NISN pages going back to 1998, including an annual report that confirms the offering of IP backbone services).
    91 NASA Research and Engineering Network
    (govt)
          "The primary objective of NREN is to infuse emerging network technologies into NASA mission-critical applications supported by the High-End Computing Columbia (HECC) project. As NASA's Mission Directorates integrate these emerging networking technologies into their activities, mission applications involving space exploration, the design of air and space vehicles, and Earth system modeling will be revolutionized, including faster and easier access to valuable mission data contained in NASA's vast storage facilities."
    99 360Net

    Network Map

    16,000 Route Miles

    Denver

    1987: Started
    2000: Went Public,
    2001: Filed bankruptcy
    2002: Emerged from bankruptcy
    2003: Acquired GT Canada; Dynegy; Touch America
    2004: Aquired Corban Comm
    2004: Sold GT Canada to Bell Canada
    2011: acquired by Zayo


    99 AboveNet
    AS 6461
    Map Looking Glass

    1999 Acquired by MFN
    2003 MFN emerge from bankruptcy as Abovenet
    2012: acquired by Zayo

    99 AGIS     1994 founded.
    2000 acquired by Telia
     
    99 Aleron     2000 Founded
    2002 acquired Telia
    2004 acquired by Cogent
     
    99 Allegiance Communications    

    2002: Acquired Intermedia Communications pursuant to WCOM / Intermedia (Digex) merger DOJ consent decree
    2003 Allegiance Filed for Bankruptcy [US Bankruptcy Court 2004]
    2004: Acquired by XO

     
    99 ANS     1990 originally formed as a non profit subcontractor in order to operate NSFNET network
    1992 interconnects at CIX
    1995 acquired by AOL
    1998 sold by AOL to WCOM
     
    99 AOL Data Transit Network Network Map   1995 acquired ANS (see NSFNET)
    2001 merger with TW Telecom
    2009 TW Telecom spins off AOL (but I think the network stays with TW Telecom??)
    2015 VZ acquires AOL
    Peering
    99 ARPANET     1969 initiated service
    1990 ARPANET decommissioned
     
    99 BBN     1969 Builds IMPs for ARPANET
    1974 Telenet founded
    1979 Telenet acquired by GTE
    1994 BBN Planet established
    1997 acquired by GTE
     
    99 Broadwing


    1999 founded.
    2007 acquired by Level3

    99 Cable & Wireless     1999 Launches service having acquired MCI's backbone
    - Identified as one of five major backbones 1999 [Cremer p 14 n 12]
    2004 Acquired by Savvis
    99 CAIS Internet     1993 Founded
    2001 Rebranded Ardent
    2002 Acquired by Beyond the Network
    Beyond the Internet was acquired apparently by PCCW
     
    99 CERFNet Map   1991 original member of CIX
    Acquired by AT&T
    99 CRL     1993 Boardwatch Dir is noting as in service
    2000 acquired by AppliedTheory (at this point lose track of network)
     
    99 Digex     1991 Founded
    1996 IPO
    1997 acquired Intermedia Communications
    2001 acquired by WCOM
     
    99 E.spire Communications / Xpedius

    1993 E.Spire founded
    1998 changed name from American Communications Services to E.Spire
    2000 Sells dial up service to Earthlink
    2001 E.Spire bankruptcy
    2002 acquired by Xpedius
    2003 acquired MPower
    2005 acquired ICG
    2006 acquired by TW Telecom

    99 ENRON

    1998 First Point Communications becomes ENRON
    2001 files for bankruptcy

    99 Epoch

    1994 founded
    1995 acquired Planetcom
    2002 acquired by Megapath

    99 Excite@Home     @Home Founded 1995
    1999 Merged with Excite
    2001 Acquired by AT&T
     
    99 Exodus     1994 Founded
    2001 acquired by Cable & Wireless
     
    99 Fiber Network Solutions    

    1994 Founded
    2003 acquired by Cogent

     
    99 Global Crossing
    AS3549


    1997 founded
    2002 filed bankruptcy
    2011 acquired by Level3
    99 Globalnaps Map  

    1998 Founded
    2001 acquired Servint's network
    2012 Reportedly shut down (not good information out there about this)

     
    99 GTE Genuity    

    1979 acquired Telenet
    1982 Telenet acquired by Sprint
    1997 acquired BBN
    1999 Identified as one of five major backbones [Cremer p 14 n 12]
    2000 GTE and Verizon merge; Genuity backbone spun off merger condition
    2003 Genuity acquired by Level3

     
    99 IBM     1987 awarded contract to construct NSFNET
    1999 Backbone acquired by AT&T
     
    99 ICCX / Rocky Mountain Internet / Dataexchange    

    1993 DataXchange founded
    1994 RMI founded
    1998 RMI acquired DataXchange
    2000 acquired ICC, renamed ICCX
    2001 bankruptcy

     
    99 ICG Communications

    Founded 1986
    1997 acquires Netcom
    1999 sells Netcom to Mindspring/Earthlink
    2000 bankruptcy
    2006 acquired by Level3

    99 InfoNet


    1997 Founded
    2005 Acquired by BT

    99 Inteliquent
    AS 3257
    Map  

    1998 Tinet Established private network
    2002 Becomes full service provider
    2009 Tiscali sold, becomes Tinet (wiki)
    2010 Tinet acquired by Inteliquent
    2012 Tinet & Neutral Tandem rebranded Inteliquent
    2013 Tinet Data Business sold to GTT (Inteliquent)

  • Tier 1 per ENISA 2011
  • Tier 1 [Israel, Besen 2012]
  • Tier 1 per FCC [Level 3 / GC Merger ¶ 22 2011]
  • [Luckie 2012 (showing transit market 2002-2013, showing Inteliquent increasing customer base.)]
  • 99 Intermedia Communications     1987 Founded
    ~ 1997 Offered Internet services
    2001 Merged with WCOM on condition that divest of Intermedia (WCOM would keep Digex)
    2002 Intermedia acquired by Allegiance pursuant to WCOM merger conditions
     
    99 Lightning Internet Services

    1995 Founded
    2002 acquired by Hurricane Electric

    99 MCI     1987 awarded contract to build NSFNET
    1997 Market Share btw 5% - 15% [EU Commission § 104]
    1999 as condition to MCI / WCOM merger, MCI backbone sold to Cable & Wireless
    Tier 1 Backbone per [SBC / AT&T Merger Order ¶ 115 2005]
    99 McLeod Communications

    1991 founded
    2002 bankruptcy
    2005 bankruptcy
    2007 acquired by Paetec

    99

    National Lambda Rail NLR (Academic)

    Map GlobalNOC Network Status

    2003 Founded
    2007 Merger discussions with Internet2 fail [NLR]
    2014 Ceased operations

  • IPTransitNet
  • 99 Netaxs Internet Services

    Resolves to Paetec 2011

    99 Netrail     1996 initiates backbone service
    2001 acquired by Cogent
     
    99 NSFNET     1986 NSFNET initiates 56 kbps backbone service to academic institutions
    1988 NSFNET upgraded to 1 mbps (IBM and MCI win bids to build network, with strategy of learning this new technology)
    1995 NSFNET terminated service after NSF privitized backbone services.
     
    99 Optigate

    1998 founded
    2004 Bankruptcy

    99 PSINet     1989 founded
    1991 founding member of CIX
    1991 acquired NYSERNET
    1999 purchases naming rights to Baltimore football stadium [Balt Sun]
    2001 files for bankruptcy
    2002 acquired by Cogent
     
    99

    Qwest



    1988 Founded as Souther Pacific Construction; laid fiber along its railroad routes
    1997 IPO
    1999 acquired US West (becoming a BOC)
    2011 acquired by Century Link

    99

    Savvis
    AS3561



    1995 Founded
    2004 acquired Cable & Wireless
    2011 acquired by Century Link
    99 Servint

    1997 Founded
    2001 Bankruptcy. Sold network to Globalnaps

    99 Teleglobe
    AS6453


    1996 opens transatlantic link
    2000 acquired by Bell Canada
    2002 Bell Canada terminates its relationship with Teleglobe
    2006 aquired by Tata
  • Listed as Transit Free by Renesys 2009
  • 99 Time Warner Telecom

    Looking Glass

    2001 merge with AOL
    2006 acquired Xspedius Communications
    2009 spin off AOL
    2014 acquired by L3

    99 Time Warner Cable AS 7843 Wholesale IP, Map  

    2006 acquires Adelphia's backbone
    2016 acquired by Charter

    99 UUNET     1987 founded
    1991 founding memeber CIX
    1996 acquired by MFS which was acquired by WCOM
     
    99 vBNS     1995 Initiated; operated by MCI
    1998 MCI / WCOM Merger - vBNS goes to WCOM
    vBNS contract expires; academic traffic migrates to I2

     
    99 WCOM    

    1992 acquired Advanced Communications
    1993 acquired Metromedia Communications; Resurgens
    1994 acquired IDB Communications
    1995 acquired Williams Technology Groups
    1996 acquired MFS and UUNET
    1997 UUNET depeering; acquired Compuserve
    1997 Market Share btw 35% - 45% [EU Commission § 104]
    1998 acquired ANS from AOL
    1999 Identified as one of five major backbones [Cremer p 14 n 12]
    2001 acquired DIGEX
    2004 emerges from bankruptcy rebranced as MCI
    2006 acquired by Verizon

     
    99 Williams

    1985 Wiltel founded
    1995 Williams sells Wiltel to WCOM
    1998 Williams relaunches Williams Communications
    2001 Williams spins off Williams Communications
    2002 Bankruptcy; acquired by Leucadia
    2005 acquired from Leucadia by Level3

    80 Integra Telecom Map      

    Inter-X: Resilience of the Internet Interconnection Ecosystem, Full Report, European Network and Information Security Agency, p. 81 (April 2011) 

      1997* 1998** 1999*
    MCI WCOM (now Verizon) 43% 38% (MCI) 20% (WCOM) 31%
    GTE-BBN 13% 4% 15%
    AT&T 12% 11%
    Sprint 12% 22% 9%
    Cable & Wireless 9% 6%
    All Other 11% 21%

    * Market Shares of National Internet Backbones [Economidies p 10]

    ** Top Internet Backbone Companies, Business Week (1998)

     

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